Association "EURATOM - Belgian State"
The Belgian Association for Fusion is consists of
A very brief overview of other plasma physics research institutes in Belgium
At the temperatures required for fusion (roughly 100-200 million degrees), matter is in the plasma state. Consequently, fusion research is traditionally done in plasma physics laboratories. Plasmas, gases of charged rather than neutral particles, exist in many varieties. Electrons detaching from ions already at temperatures of a few thousand degrees, "cold" plasmas behave markedly differently than their "hot" counterparts in the core of magnetic fusion machines. Likewise, the typical densities in inertial fusion devices are many orders of magnitude larger than the densities in tokamaks. Similar disparities exist in astrophysical plasmas: Particles in the solar wind can be much more energetic and their density is significantly lower than that of particles near the center of the sun. As a result, the field of plasma physics research is extremely vast and requires various kinds of expertise. Some research laboratories focus on the limit in which the plasma can be represented as a (sum of) fluid(s) while for others the detailed description of what individual particles experience is essential and thus a kinetic or statistical approach is needed. While for some topics the details of the interaction of the plasma with the wall are essential, plasma assisted sputtering and coating used in the semiconductor industry being the extreme example, such boundary conditions or the exact geometry hardly play a role for others. The list below provides - possibly nonexhaustively - the Belgian non-industrial plasma research initiatives' internetsites.